Differences between Cancer Cells and Normal Cells

Differences between Cancer Cells and Normal Cells

There are various ways in which cancer cells are distinct from normal ones. Here are some of the differences;

  • Cancer cells multiply in the absence of growth signals. The only time normal cells will multiply is in response to signals like this.
  • Cancer cells ignore signals that typically tell them to stop dividing or to die in a process called apoptosis, which is programmed cell death.
  • Cancer cells can invade neighboring regions and then expand to other parts of the body while stopping their growth rate when they come in contact with other cells. Also, normal cells often do not migrate throughout the body like cancer cells.
  • Cancer cells direct the growth of blood vessels in the direction of the tumor. These blood vessels provide tumors with oxygen and nutrients and eliminate waste products from tumors.
  • Cancer cells conceal their presence from the immune system to avoid being destroyed as they are aberrant and abnormal cells. 
  • Use deception to persuade the immune system that it should keep cancer cells alive and allow them to flourish. Some cancer cells, for example, can persuade immune cells not to attack the tumor but rather to defend it from harm.
  • Accumulate various alterations in their chromosomes, such as duplications and deletions of chromosome sections, during their lifetime. Certain cancer cells contain twice as many chromosomes as healthy cells.
  • They obtain their nourishment in a manner distinct from that of normal cells. Furthermore, most cancer cells generate energy from nutrients in a manner that is distinct from the majority of normal cells. This allows their rapid growth.

In many cases, cancer cells depend upon these abnormal actions to such an extent that they would perish if eliminated. Researchers have used this knowledge to develop treatments that target the abnormal characteristics found in cancer cells. For instance, several cancer treatments stop blood vessels from sprouting in the direction of tumors, depriving the tumor of the nutrition it needs to survive.

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